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Using the Debugging Tools Available in Windows Server 2012 : TCP/IP Tools (part 2) - Pathping, Ipconfig, ARP , Netstat

11/24/2014 3:15:12 AM
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Pathping

Pathping is a route-tracing tool that combines both features of ping and tracert commands with some more information that neither of those two commands provides. Pathping is most ideal for a network with routers or multiple routes between the source and destination hosts. The Pathping command sends packets to each router on its way to a destination, and then gets results from each packet returned from the router. Because Pathping computes the loss of packets from each hop, you can easily determine which router is causing a problem in the network.

To display the parameters in Pathping, open a command prompt and type Pathping /?. The parameters for the Pathping command are as follows:

-4—Specifies that tracert.exe can use only IPv4 for the trace.

-6—Specifies that tracert.exe can use only IPv6 for the trace.

-g Host-list—Allows hosts to be separated by intermediate gateways.

-h maximumHops—Specifies the maximum number of hops before reaching the target. The default is 30 hops.

-i address—Uses the specified source address.

-n—Specifies that it is not necessary to resolve the address to the hostname.

-p period—Specifies the number of seconds to wait between pings. The default is a quarter of a second.

-q num_queries—Specifies the number of queries to each host along the route. The default is three.

-w timeout—Specifies the timeout for each reply in milliseconds.

Ipconfig

Ipconfig displays all TCP/IP configuration values. It is of particular use on machines running DHCP. It is used to refresh DHCP settings and to determine which TCP/IP configuration values have been assigned by DHCP. If Ipconfig is used without parameters, it displays IP addresses, subnet masks, and gateways for each of the adapters on a machine. The adapters can be physical network adapters or logical adapters such as dial-up connections.

Some of the parameters for Ipconfig are as follows:

/all—Displays all TCP/IP configuration values.

/displaydns—Displays the contents of the DNS client resolver cache.

/flushdns—Resets and flushes the contents of the DNS client resolver cache. This includes entries made dynamically.

/registerdns—Sets manual dynamic registration for DNS names and IP addresses configured on a computer. This is particularly useful in troubleshooting DNS name registration or dynamic update problems between a DNS server and client.

/release[Adapter]—Sends a DHCP release message to the DHCP server to discard DHCP-configured settings for adapters. This parameter is available only for DHCP-enabled clients. If no adapter is specified, IP address configuration is released for all adapters.

/renew[Adapter]—Renews DHCP configuration for all adapters (if an adapter is not specified) and for a specific adapter if the Adapter parameter is included. This parameter is available only for DHCP-enabled clients.

/setclassid Adapter [classID]—Configures the DHCP class ID for a specific adapter. You can configure the DHCP class ID for all adapters by using the wildcard (*) character in place of Adapter.

/showclassid Adapter—Displays the DHCP class ID for a specific adapter.

/allcompartments—Displays information about all compartments.

/allocmpartments /all—Displays detailed information about all compartments.


Note

Ipconfig displays the assigned configuration for a system such as the default gateway, DNS servers, local IP address, subnet mask, and so on. When you’re debugging network problems, you can use Ipconfig to validate that the proper TCP/IP settings have been set up for a system so that a server properly communicates on the network.


ARP

ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol. ARP enables the display and modification of the ARP table on a local machine, which matches physical MAC addresses of machines to their corresponding IP addresses. ARP increases the speed of connection by eliminating the need to match MAC addresses with IP addresses for subsequent connections.

Some of the parameters for the Arp command are as follows:

-a[InetAddr] [-N IfaceAddr]—Displays the ARP table for all adapters on a machine. Use Arp –a with the InetAddr (IP address) parameter to display the ARP cache entry for a specific IP address.

-dInetAddr [IfaceAddr]—Deletes an entry with a specific IP address (InetAddr). Use the IfaceAddr parameter (IP address assigned to the interface) to delete an entry in a table for a specific interface. Use the wildcard character in place of InetAddr to delete all entries.

-g[InetAddr] [-N IfaceAddr]—Similar to the –a parameter.

-sInetAddr EtherAddr [IfaceAddr]—Adds a static entry to the ARP cache that resolves the IP address (InetAddr) to a physical address (EtherAddr). To add a static ARP cache entry to the table for a specific interface, use the IP address assigned to the interface (IfaceAddr).

Netstat

As its name implies, Netstat (or Network Statistics) is used to display protocol statistics for any active connections, monitor connections to a remote host, and monitor IP addresses or domain names of hosts with established connections.

The parameters for Netstat are as follows:

-a—Displays all connections and listening ports by hostname.

-b—Displays the executable involved in creating each connection.

-e—Displays Ethernet packets and bytes to and from the host.

-n—Displays address and port numbers without resolving the address to the hostname.

-o—Displays TCP connections and includes the corresponding process ID (PID). Used in combination with -a, -n, and -p. Not available in previous Windows versions.

-p protocol—Displays statistics based on the protocol specified. Protocols that can be specified are TCP, UDP, TCPv6, or UDPv6. It can be used with -s to display TCP, UDP, ICMP, IP, TCPv6, UDPv6, ICMPv6, or IPv6.

-s—Displays statistics on a protocol-by-protocol basis. Can be used with the -p parameter to specify a set of protocols.

-t—Displays the current connection offload state.

-r—Displays the route table. Information displayed includes network destination, netmask, gateway, interface, and metric (number of hops).

[Parameter] Interval—Displays the information at every interval specified. Interval is a numeral in seconds. Press Ctrl+C to stop the intervals.


 
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