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Using the Debugging Tools Available in Windows Server 2012 : TCP/IP Tools (part 3) - Route, Nslookup, DCDiag

11/24/2014 3:15:36 AM
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Route

Route is particularly useful for troubleshooting incorrect static routes or for adding a route to a route table to temporarily bypass a problem gateway. Static routes can be used in place of implicit routes specified by a default gateway. Use Route to add static routes to forward packets going to a gateway specified by default to avoid loops, improve traffic time, and so on.

The parameters for Route are as follows:

-add—Adds a route to a table. Use –p to make the route persistent for subsequent sessions.

-Delete—Deletes a route from the table.

-Print—Prints a route.

-change—Modifies an existing route.

-destination—Specifies the host address.

-gateway—Specifies the address of gateway for Route.

IF interface—Specifies the interface for the routing table to modify.

-mask Netmask—Uses the subnet mask specified by Netmask. If -mask is not used, it defaults to 255.255.255.255.

-METRIC Metric—Specifies the metric, or cost, for the route using the value Metric.

-f—Clears the routing table of all gateway entries.

-p—Used with -add to create a persistent route.

Nslookup

Nslookup is used to query DNS. You can think of Nslookup as a simple diagnostic client for DNS servers. It can operate in two modes: Interactive and Noninteractive. Use Noninteractive mode to look up a single piece of data. To look up more than one piece of data, use Interactive mode. To stop Interactive mode at any time, press Ctrl+B. To exit from the command, type exit. If Nslookup is used without any parameters, it uses the default DNS name server for lookup.

The parameters for Nslookup are as follows:

-ComputerToFind—Looks up information for the specified ComputerToFind. By default, it uses the current default DNS name server.

-Server—Specifies the server as the DNS name server.

-SubCommand—Specifies one or more Nslookup subcommands as a command-line option. Type a question mark (?) to display a list of subcommands available.

DCDiag

The Domain Controller Diagnostic (DCDiag) tool analyzes the state of domain controllers and services in an Active Directory forest. It is installed when the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) role is added to a Windows Server 2012 installation. This is a great general-purpose test tool for checking the health of an Active Directory infrastructure.

Tests include domain controller connectivity, replication errors, permissions, proper roles, and connectivity, and other general Active Directory health checks. It can even run non-domain controller-specific tests, such as whether a server can be promoted to a domain controller (the dcpromo test), or register its records properly in DNS (RegisterInDNS test).

DCDiag is run on domain controllers exclusively, with the exception of the dcpromo and RegisterInDNS tests.

When run without any parameters, the tests will be run against the current domain controller. This runs all the key tests and is usually sufficient for most purposes.

The parameters for DCDiag are as follows:

/s:DomainController—Uses the domain controller as the home server

/n:NamingContext—Uses the specified naming context (NetBIOS, FQDN, or distinguished name) to test

/u:Domain\UserName /p:{*|Password|””}—Uses the supplied credentials to run the tool

/a—Tests all domain controllers in the site

/e—Tests all domain controllers in the enterprise

/q—Displays quiet output (errors only)

/v—Displays verbose output

/I—Ignores minor error messages

/fix—Fixes minor problems

/f:LogFile—Logs to the specified log file

/ferr:ErrorLogFile—Logs errors to the specified log file

/c—Comprehensively runs all tests

/test:TestName—Runs the specified tests only

/skip:TestName—Skips the specified tests

When specifying tests to run or to skip, nonskippable tests will still be run.


Note

DCDiag is automatically included on a Windows Server 2012 system when the Active Directory Domain Services role is added. Otherwise, on non-domain controllers, the utility can be added by adding the Remote Server Administration Tools feature in Server Manager.

 
Others
 
- Using the Debugging Tools Available in Windows Server 2012 : TCP/IP Tools (part 2) - Pathping, Ipconfig, ARP , Netstat
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