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Windows Server 2012 : A complete virtualization platform (part 2) - Troubleshooting virtual switches, Additional capabilities

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1/23/2014 2:40:44 AM

1.2 Troubleshooting virtual switches

Microsoft also has extended Unified Tracing through the Hyper-V extensible switch, which makes it easier for you to diagnose problems that may occur. For example, if you are experiencing issues that you think might be connected with the extensible switch, you could attempt to troubleshoot the problem by turning on tracing using the Netsh command like this:

netsh trace start provider=Microsoft-Windows-Hyper-V-VmSwitch capture=yes
capturetype=vmswitch

Then you would try and reproduce the issue while tracing is turned on. Once a repro has occurred, you could disable tracing with netsh trace stop and then review the generated Event Trace Log (ETL) file using Event Viewer or Network Monitor. You also could review the System event log for any relevant events.

Performance monitoring improvements

Windows Server 2012 exposes more Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) data providers and performance items than Windows Server 2008 R2. With this exposure comes the vital need for the IT professional to know which datasets are relevant to their specific monitoring situation. It’s not feasible nor appropriate to just gather everything, for system monitoring has in it a touch of physics … a modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle is afoot; One cannot monitor a system without impacting it to some degree. To how much of a degree is at question. Finely tuned data collector sets by Performance Analysis of Logs (PAL; see http://pal.codeplex.com) can be used by the IT professional to ensure they are only gathering the data necessary to their problem set, so as to not negatively impact system performance too heavily while monitoring or baselining systems.

One advantage to using ETW data providers rather than performance counter object items is that ETW providers come from the kernel itself typically, rather than coming from user mode measurements. What this means is that the data from ETW data providers is more accurate and more reliable and also puts a lower load on the system. ETW logging is unlikely to suffer from missing data sets due to high system load as well. Look for guidance on which items to collect though before diving in; ETL tracing can grow log files quickly.

1.3 Additional capabilities

A number of other advanced capabilities also have been integrated by Microsoft into the Hyper-V extensible switch to help enhance security, monitoring, and troubleshooting functionality. These additional capabilities include the following:

  • DHCP guard Helps safeguard against Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) man-in-the-middle attacks by dropping DHCP server messages from unauthorized VMs pretending to be DHCP servers

  • MAC address spoofing Helps safeguard against attempts to use ARP spoofing to steal IP addresses from VMs by allowing VMs to change the source MAC address in outgoing packets to an address that is not assigned to them

  • Router guard Helps safeguard against unauthorized routers by dropping router advertisement and redirection messages from unauthorized VMs pretending to be routers

  • Port mirroring Enables monitoring of a VM’s network traffic by forwarding copies of destination or source packets to another VM being used for monitoring purposes

  • Port ACLs Helps enforce virtual network isolation by allowing traffic filtering based on media access control (MAC) or IP address ranges

  • Isolated VLANs Allows segregation of traffic on multiple VLANs to facilitate isolation of tenant networks through the creation of private VLANs (PVLANs)

  • Trunk mode Allows directing traffic from a group of VLANs to a specific VM

  • Bandwidth management Allows guaranteeing a minimum amount of bandwidth and/or enforcing a maximum amount of bandwidth for each VM

  • Enhanced diagnostics Allows packet monitoring and event tracing through the extensible switch using ETL and Unified Tracing

Most of these additional capabilities can be configured from the graphical user interface (GUI) by opening the VM’s settings. For example, by selecting the network adapter under Hardware, you can specify bandwidth management settings for the VM. Figure 4 shows these settings configured in such a way that the VM always has at least 50 MBps of network bandwidth available, but never more than 100 MBps. If your hosts reside in a shared cloud being used to provision applications and services to business units or customers, these new bandwidth management capabilities can provide the benefit of helping you meet your SLAs with these business units or customers.

Minimum and maximum bandwidth settings have been configured for this VM.

Figure 4. Minimum and maximum bandwidth settings have been configured for this VM.

Clicking the + sign beside Network Adapter in these settings exposes two new pages of network settings: Hardware Acceleration and Advanced Features. Here are the Advanced Features settings which lets you configure MAC address spoofing, DHCP guard, router guard, and port mirroring for the selected network adapter of the VM, as shown in Figure 5.

As the sidebar demonstrates, you also can use PowerShell to configure and manage the various advanced capabilities of the Hyper-V extensible switch.

Configuring advanced features for network adapter settings for a VM.

Figure 5. Configuring advanced features for network adapter settings for a VM.

 
Others
 
- Windows Server 2012 : A complete virtualization platform (part 1) - Hyper-V extensible switch - Configuring virtual switches
- Windows Server 2012 : Deploying domain controllers using Windows PowerShell (part 4) - Verifying domain-controller deployment
- Windows Server 2012 : Deploying domain controllers using Windows PowerShell (part 3) - Additional domain controller in domain
- Windows Server 2012 : Deploying domain controllers using Windows PowerShell (part 2) - Using Windows PowerShell to deploy domain controllers - First domain controller in new forest
- Windows Server 2012 : Deploying domain controllers using Windows PowerShell (part 1)
- Windows Server 2012 : Deploying domain controllers using Server Manager (part 6) - Uninstalling AD DS
- Windows Server 2012 : Deploying domain controllers using Server Manager (part 5) - Verifying the installation
- Windows Server 2012 : Deploying domain controllers using Server Manager (part 4) - First Windows Server 2012 domain controller in an existing forest
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