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Windows Phone 7 : Getting Started with XNA - Sprites in Detail (part 4) - Sprite Transparency, Alpha Tinting

1/26/2013 4:48:33 PM
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7. Sprite Transparency

The smiley face texture we have been using is circular, but sprites are always rectangular. Why is it then that we don't end up with a rectangular box drawn around the edge of the sprite?

The reason is that we are using an image with transparency information. Without this, the sprite would be drawn completely to the edges of its draw rectangle. Figure 6 shows an example of drawing the smiley face texture without any transparency. As you can see, it's not exactly the effect we want to achieve in most cases.

Figure 6. Drawing the smiley face sprite with no transparency information

We have two techniques at our disposal for making transparent sections within our sprites: color keys and alpha channels. Let's take a look at each of these techniques. Examples of both techniques can be found within the Transparency example project.

NOTE

JPEG images are not recommended for use with either of these transparency techniques. JPEG's lossy compression means that colors are not stored accurately enough for color key transparency, and the information required for alpha channels is not supported by JPEG images. If you wish to use transparency, you will need to stick with PNG image files instead.

7.1. Color Key Transparency

A color key provides the simplest mechanism for making areas of your sprite transparent, but it is less flexible than the alpha channel approach that we will discuss in a moment. A color key identifies a particular pixel color within your image that will be treated as transparent. Any and all pixels that exactly match the specified color will become completely transparent when your sprite is rendered, whereas all other pixels will be completely opaque.

By convention, the color fuchsia is by default used as the color key. This has full intensity of red and blue, and none of green, and is, by any other name, purple. This has been chosen as it is a relatively infrequently used color within computer graphics.

The ColorKey.png image in the Transparency example's Content project is set up to use a color key. As you will see when you run the project, the sprite is drawn as if it were circular, and all the rest of the rectangular sprite area is left untouched when the sprite is drawn.

But why has XNA decided to use the color key? And how could we use a different color as the color key if we needed to use fuchsia in our graphic? The answer to these questions can be found in the Properties window for the ColorKey.png file within the Content project. If you expand the Content Processor property, you will find that hiding inside are properties named Color Key Enabled and Color Key Color, as shown in Figure 7. These default to True and 255, 0, 255, 255, respectively (the Color Key Color values represent the red, green, blue and alpha values of the transparent color). If you wish to disable the color key or change the key color, modify these properties as required.

Figure 7. The Color Key properties inside the Content project

7.2. Alpha Channel Transparency

Color key transparency is a quick and simple method, but it is binary: pixels are either fully transparent or fully opaque. Sometimes we want more control than that, allowing individual pixels in the image to have different degrees of transparency. We can achieve this using an alpha channel.

As already discussed, each pixel color within an image is made from varying the intensity of red, green, and blue. PNG images are able to store one final additional value alongside each pixel: the alpha value. This also ranges from 0 to 255, where 0 represents a fully transparent pixel (which will actually be completely invisible when drawn to the screen) and 255 (which represents a fully opaque pixel). The values inbetween form a smooth gradiation of transparency levels.

Although the end results of using an alpha channel are usually superior to those from color keyed graphics, the amount of effort required to set up the graphic can be much greater. For more information on how to use alpha channels in your graphics package of choice, please consult its documentation.

Most well-featured graphics packages allow you to work on an image's alpha channel. If you are looking for a flexible and powerful image editor on a budget, try the freeware application Paint.NET. Visit the web site at http://www.getpaint.net/ to download. Paint.NET has full alpha channel support, although it can take a while to get the hang of using it.


For images with alpha channels, there is no need to set up any properties within the Content project: XNA will automatically recognize and use the alpha data within the image. The Transparency example project displays two instances of a graphic with an alpha channel. The color data in the graphic is in fact completely white, but the alpha data contains a radial fade from opaque in the image center to fully transparent at the edges.

The project randomly changes the background color every few seconds. Note how the alpha channel images blend in with the background, taking on its color in their semitransparent regions. You can also see how the two overlapping images blend with one another rather than erasing the pixels of the sprite in the background.

Alpha channels can, of course, be used when tinting sprites, too. Try changing the color of one of the alpha channel sprites from Color.White to Color.Blue, for example, and see how the sprites now appear when the project is run.


8. Alpha Tinting

Now that we have discussed alpha channels and transparency, we can revisit the sprite tinting feature that we discussed a few pages back.

You may recall that we could define a color for tinting by specifying the red, green, and blue intensity levels. But hold on; if PNG images can store alpha information as well as color information, can we use alpha values for tinting?

Well yes, we can. A further overload of the Color constructor allows an alpha value to be specified alongside the red, green, and blue values. If we set our SpriteBatch object up in the appropriate way and pass the alpha value as something other than 255 (or 1.0f, if you prefer the float-based version), the sprite will be drawn semitransparently. This can be used to smoothly fade objects in or out of the display, or to provide ghostly shadow effects in your games.

To use this effect, we first need to specify a different parameter when calling the SpriteBatch.Begin method. Pass the value of BlendState.NonPremultiplied for the blendState parameter. There are various methods that XNA uses to blend new graphics with those already on the screen, and this is the one that allows us to draw new sprites with varying levels of transparency.

Then it is simply a matter of providing an alpha level in your Color object: 0 for fully transparent; 255 for fully opaque. Listing 8 creates a series of smiley faces that are fully transparent on the left to opaque on the right. The results are shown in Figure 8.

Example 8. Drawing sprites with alpha tinting
// Begin a sprite batch with nonpremultiplied blending
        _spriteBatch.Begin(SpriteSortMode.Deferred, BlendState.NonPremultiplied);
        // Draw some sprites with different alpha tints
        for (int i = 0; i < 20; i++)
        {
            _spriteBatch.Draw(_smileyTexture, new Vector2(I * 20, 100),
new Color(255, 255, 255, i * 12));
        }
        // End the sprite batch
        _spriteBatch.End();

					  

Figure 8. Varying levels of alpha in the sprite color

The example shown in Figure 8 can be found in the AlphaTinting project in the accompanying download.
 
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