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Windows Server 2012 : Deploying and configuring virtual machines (part 4) - Adding and configuring virtual network adapters

4/18/2014 1:11:37 AM
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3.2 Adding and configuring virtual network adapters

You can use the Add Hardware page of the virtual machine settings dialog box in Hyper-V Manager to add new virtual network adapters to your virtual machine. You can choose from two types of virtual network adapters to add:

  • Network adapter Originally called a synthetic network adapter in the first version of Hyper-V, this type of virtual network adapter relies on Integration Components being installed in the virtual machine to ensure optimal performance. Operating systems such as Windows Server 2008 R2 and later have Integration Components built into them. When you use older operating systems for the guest, you might need to install Integration Components in the virtual machine.

  • Legacy network adapter This type of virtual network adapter emulates a multiport DEC 21140 10/100TX 100-MB Ethernet adapter and is provided mainly for three reasons:

    • To support legacy guest operating systems that do not support the installation of Integration Components.

    • To support non-Windows guest operating systems for which Hyper-V does not provide Integration Components.

    • To support network-based installations. (Legacy network adapters have the ability to boot to the Pre-Boot Execution Environment [PXE] to start the network-based installation process.)

Note

Support for legacy network adapters

Legacy network adapters are not supported in the 64-bit edition of Windows Server 2003 or the Windows XP Professional x64 edition.

Once a virtual network adapter has been added to your virtual machine, you can configure the adapter by selecting the appropriate page in the virtual machine settings dialog box as shown in Figures 4, 5, and 6. The configuration settings available for the network adapter type of virtual network adapter are as follows:

  • Virtual switch You can connect the virtual network adapter to a different virtual switch on the host or even remove all connectivity if needed.

  • Enable virtual LAN identification You can enable VLAN identification and specify a VLAN ID to segment or isolate network traffic for the virtual network adapter.

  • Bandwidth Management This feature allows you to specify how much network bandwidth the virtual network adapter should use for communications over the connected virtual switch.

    Configuration settings available for virtual network adapters.
    Figure 4. Configuration settings available for virtual network adapters.
  • Virtual machine queue (VMQ) This technology allows supported network adapters to use hardware packet filtering to deliver packet data from an external virtual machine network directly to the virtual machine. The effect is to reduce the overhead of routing and copying packets from the management operating system to the virtual machine. VMQ is enabled by default on new virtual network adapters.

  • IPsec task offloading This technology allows supported network adapters to perform IPsec processing to reduce the processing load on the host. IPsec task offloading is enabled by default on new virtual network adapters.

  • Single-root I/O virtualization SR-IOV-capable network adapters can be assigned directly to a virtual machine to maximize network throughput while minimizing network latency and the CPU overhead required for processing network traffic. Implementing SR-IOV requires host firmware, such as Intel VT-d, that supports SR-IOV and an SR-IOV-capable network adapter and driver installed in both the management operating system and the virtual machine.

    Hardware acceleration settings available for virtual network adapters.
    Figure 5. Hardware acceleration settings available for virtual network adapters.
  • MAC address You can configure a virtual network adapter to obtain its MAC address dynamically from the pool of available MAC addresses configured on the host, or you can assign a static MAC address to the adapter.

  • MAC address spoofing This feature helps protect the virtual machine against attempts to use ARP spoofing to steal IP addresses from the virtual machine by allowing the virtual machine to change the source MAC address in outgoing packets to an address that is not assigned to it.

  • DHCP guard This feature helps protect the virtual machine against Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) man-in-the-middle attacks by dropping DHCP server messages from unauthorized virtual machines pretending to be DHCP servers.

  • Router guard This feature allows you to specify whether the router advertisement and redirection messages from unauthorized virtual machines should be dropped.

  • Port mirroring With this feature traffic sent to or from a Hyper-V Virtual Switch port is copied and sent to a mirror port so it can be analyzed by network diagnostic and performance tools.

  • NIC Teaming Also known as load balancing and failover (LBFO), this feature allows multiple virtual network adapters to be configured as a team for the purpose of bandwidth aggregation or to ensure traffic failover in order to prevent connectivity loss in the event of the failure of a network component. NIC teaming is supported at both the host and guest levels in Windows Server 2012, and it can be configured in the guest if the physical network adapters of the host do not support it.

Additional configuration settings available for virtual network adapters.
Figure 6. Additional configuration settings available for virtual network adapters.

You can also use Windows PowerShell to view, add, remove, and configure virtual network adapters of both the network adapter type and legacy network adapter type. For example, let’s say you want to add a second virtual network adapter to a virtual machine, connect it to a virtual switch on the host, and enable both DHCP Guard and Router Guard on the adapter. To do this, you could begin by using the Get-VMNetworkAdapter cmdlet to display a list of virtual network adapters installed on the virtual machine:

PS C:\> Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName SRV-B

Name IsManagementOs VMName SwitchName MacAddress Status IPAddresses
---- -------------- ------ ---------- ---------- ------ -----------
Network Adapter False SRV-B CONTOSO Virtua... 00155D0BE600 {}

Next you can use the Add-VMNetworkAdapter to create the new adapter and connect it to the desired virtual switch:

PS C:\> Add-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName SRV-B -VMNetworkAdapterName "Network Adapter 2" `
-SwitchName "MANAGEMENT Virtual Switch"

You can then use the Get-VMNetworkAdapter again to verify the result:

PS C:\> Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName SRV-B

Name IsManagementOs VMName SwitchName MacAddress Status IPAddresses
---- -------------- ------ ---------- ---------- ------ -----------
Network Adapter False SRV-B CONTOSO Virt... 00155D0BE600 {}
Network Adapter 2 False SRV-B MANAGEMENT V... 000000000000 {}

You can pipe the output of the preceding command into the Format-List cmdlet to determine whether DHCP Guard and Router Guard are already enabled on the adapter:

PS C:\> Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName SRV-B -VMNetworkAdapterName "Network Adapter 2" `
| Format-List DhcpGuard,RouterGuard

DhcpGuard : Off
RouterGuard : Off

Now use the Set-VMNetworkAdapter to enable both of these features on the adapter:

PS C:\> Set-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName SRV-B -VMNetworkAdapterName "Network Adapter 2" `
-DhcpGuard On -RouterGuard On

Running Get-VMNetworkAdapter again verifies the result:

PS C:\> Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName SRV-B -VMNetworkAdapterName "Network Adapter 2" `
| Format-List DhcpGuard,RouterGuard

DhcpGuard : On
RouterGuard : On
 
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