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QuarkXPress 8 : Fine-tuning spacing (part 2)

10/27/2011 5:06:14 PM
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Specifying hyphenation exceptions

If you have specific words that you never want to hyphenate, or you want them to hyphenate in certain ways, you can save hyphenation exceptions with a project. If you specify hyphenation exceptions when no projects are open, they apply to all new projects. To specify hyphenation exceptions:

1.
Choose Utilities > Hyphenation Exceptions.

2.
Enter each word with hyphens where you prefer the word to hyphenate. To prevent words from hyphenating, include no hyphens (Figure 3).

3.
Click Add. You need to add all variations of the word, such as plurals, with hyphens separately.

Figure 3. The hyphenation exceptions shown here specify that “Aspen” and “Denver” never hyphenate, that “Colorado” hyphenates only after “Colo,” and that “WonderWorks” hyphenate only after “Wonder.”


Tip: Entering Discretionary Hyphens

To control the hyphenation of an individual word, you can enter a “discretionary hyphen” at the preferred hyphenation spot. To do this, type Command+hyphen (Mac) or Control+hyphen (Windows) within the word. A discretionary hyphen in front of the word (with no other discretionary hyphens in the word) prevents the word from hyphenating. You can also enter discretionary hyphens from the Utilities > Insert Character > Special.

Kerning and tracking text

QuarkXPress lets you adjust the amount of space between two characters with kerning and between a range of selected characters with tracking. Kerning is often used to remove space between particular character pairs, particularly in larger font sizes. Tracking is often used to spread out text for special effects or to decrease space for copyfitting. For example, you might track a paragraph a minimal amount to pull up an orphan (a single, lonely word in the last line of a paragraph).

The Classic tab and Character Attributes tab of the Measurements palette provide a Kern Amount field when the text insertion bar is between characters . When text is highlighted, the field changes to Track Amount .

Figure 4. At left, the text between the “I” and the apostrophe is kerned −3. At right, the entire word, “UDI’S” is tracked −10.

To adjust kerning and tracking, enter a value in the field (1 equals 1/200th of an em space). You can also click the arrows next to the field to adjust the kerning or tracking by 1/20th of an em space. Option+click (Mac) or Alt+click (Windows) the arrows to adjust kerning or tracking by 1/200th of an em space. Using keyboard shortcuts, however, is probably the most common way to apply kerning and tracking because you can see the results immediately.

  • Increase (Mac): Press Command+Shift+] to increase kerning or tracking by 1/20th of an em space; press Command+Option+Shift+] to adjust by 1/200th em.

  • Decrease (Mac): Press Command+Shift+[ to decrease kerning or tracking by 1/20th of an em space; press Command+Option+Shift+[ to adjust by 1/200th em.

  • Increase (Windows): Press Control+Shift+] to increase kerning or tracking by 1/20th of an em space; press Control+Alt+Shift+] to adjust by 1/200th em.

  • Decrease (Windows): Press Control+Shift+[ to decrease kerning or tracking by 1/20th of an em space; press Control+Alt+Shift+[ to adjust by 1/200th em.

Tip: The Kern-Track Editor Xtension

Some fonts seem to cause spacing problems or constantly require tracking just to look normal. For example, when using GillSans Light, it often appears that spaces are missing after a period. Or, some condensed versions of fonts often look too tight for comfortable reading. You can specify kern values for character pairs in specific fonts and you can adjust tracking tables in fonts using the Kern-Track Editor XTension provided with QuarkXPress. To experiment with these controls, choose Utilities > Tracking Edit or Utilities > Kerning Table Edit. In general, these controls are best left to experienced typographers.

Hanging punctuation outside margins

In high-end typography, punctuation often hangs outside the margins of the text, particularly in display type. When punctuation hangs outside the margin, the text actually looks more aligned than when it is really aligned (Figure 5). Hanging punctuation is a paragraph attribute you can choose from the Hanging Character Set menu in the Formats tab of the Paragraph Attributes dialog box (Style > Formats). Choose Hanging Punctuation or Punctuation Margin Alignment. You can also create your own sets of characters to hang outside margins (Edit > Hanging Characters).

Figure 5. The quotation marks hang outside the margins of this text box because Hanging Punctuation is applied to the paragraph. As a result, the edges of the justified text look smooth.



Entering special spaces

QuarkXPress provides a variety of special space characters for carefully positioning and aligning text (Figure 6). For example, an en space is used after the word “Tip” (in the Tip headings) and a nonbreaking standard space is used before the arrow (>) character that indicates menu paths (for example, File > Open). To insert special spaces, choose Utilities > Insert Character > Special or Utilities > Insert Character > Special (nonbreaking). If you use one of these spaces often, memorize the keyboard shortcut shown in the submenu.

Figure 6. In this example, an en space is used after the bullet for a consistent amount of space that is slightly wider than a standard space.


Tip: Inserting Hyphens, En Dashes, And Em Dashes

The Insert Character submenu of the Utilities menu also lets you insert hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes in both standard and nonbreaking varieties. You might use a nonbreaking hyphen to prevent a phone number from breaking at the end of a line. An en dash (–), which is usually half the width of a capital “N” in the active font, should be used as a minus sign and in number ranges. An em dash (—), the width of a capital “M,” is often used for dramatic effect within a sentence or used in pairs, like commas, to set off a clause. A sure sign of amateur typography is the use of hyphens rather than en dashes or em dashes.

 
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